Links Module 3

SECTION 2: Strategies for Customization

Adapting and Making Accommodations for Students with Disabilities

The following resources provide guidance on working with students with a variety of disabilities. The resources provide information about adaptations that can be made to instructional techniques and accommodations that can be provided to increase inclusion in the classroom.

Teaching Students with Disabilities
Source: Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching
Link: cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/disabilities/

Successful Strategies for Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities
Source: Learning Disabilities Association of America
Link: ldaamerica.org/successful-strategies-for-teaching-students-with-learning-disabilities/

Teaching Students with Disabilities
Source: Center for Teaching and Learning, University of Washington
Link: www.washington.edu/teaching/topics/inclusive-teaching/teaching-students-with-disabilities/

Teaching Students with Disabilities
Source: University of Rochester
Link: www.rochester.edu/college/teaching/teaching-guidance/students-with-disabilities.html

Etiquette for Working with Students with Disabilities
Source: Best Colleges
Link: www.bestcolleges.com/resources/disability-etiquette/

Students with Disabilities in the College Classroom
Source: HEATH Resource Center at the National Youth Transitions Center
Link: www.heath.gwu.edu/students-disabilities-college-classroom

College for Students with Disabilities: A Guide for Students, Families, and Educators
Source: Maryville University
Link: online.maryville.edu/disabilities-guide/

Tips for Teaching Students with Disabilities
Source: The University of Wyoming — University Disability Support Services
Link: www.uwyo.edu/wind/echo  OR  www.uwyo.edu/wind/index.html

Invisible Disabilities and Postsecondary Education
Source: DO IT Center, University of Washington
Link: www.washington.edu/doit/invisible-disabilities-and-postsecondary-education
Related Video – Captioned and Audio Described (18:44 minutes)
Link: www.washington.edu/doit/videos/index.php?vid=36

How to Teach and Accommodate
Source: University of Massachusetts Dartmouth
Link: www.umassd.edu/dss/resources/faculty-staff/how-to-teach-and-accommodate/

23 Ways to Communicate with a Non-Verbal Child
Source: Special Needs Resources
Link: www.friendshipcircle.org/blog/2013/04/16/23-ways-to-communicate-with-a-non-verbal-child/

Instructional Strategies
Source: Understood: for Learning & Attention Issues
Link: www.understood.org/en/school-learning/partnering-with-childs-school/instructional-strategies

At a Glance: Classroom Accommodations for Nonverbal Learning Disabilities
Source: Understood: for Learning & Attention Issues
Link: www.understood.org/en/school-learning/partnering-with-childs-school/instructional-strategies/at-a-glance-classroom-accommodations-for-nonverbal-learning-disabilities

Customizing the Lesson Using Presentation Material and Interactive Exercises

There are three sets of resources provided that can be woven together to customize the learning experience, depending on your goals as a facilitator for this particular lesson on the basics of the ADA (e.g., providing a very simple introduction versus teaching the basics as a platform for having students engage in deeper learning about complex examples). These include: (1) advance preparation material that students can review; (2) a set of PowerPoint slides that can be used in a presentation and discussion format; and (3) a set of interactive exercises to stimulate applied learning, creativity, and deeper thinking about the concepts.

1.    Advance Preparation Material for Students

This lesson provides a very simple, high-level overview of the ADA and its five titles. The goal is to introduce students to the idea of rights for people with disabilities, their inclusion in society, how the ADA might apply to their lives broadly, and to inspire them to learn more. Suggested resources for advance preparation include readings and videos about the civil rights movements for people of color, and women. These materials will engage students to think about rights for different groups and prepare them for class discussions about how civil rights can apply for people with disabilities. In addition, a brief video prepared for the Rio Paralympics is meant to provide examples of having dreams, goals, and being able to achieve what one wants regardless of disability.

As noted, these materials can be provided in advance to students, or if the class session is long enough, they may be used in class prior to presenting the PowerPoint slides and getting into a specific discussion of the ADA. Alternatively, they could be used as both advance preparation (pre-homework) and repeated in class to reinforce the learning.

2.   PowerPoint Slides

The PowerPoint slides can be used in class to provide an overview of the ADA and the areas of life to which it applies. Combined with the interactive exercises, the presentation can be extended to cover a long class session or multiple smaller class sessions. The slides can also be presented on their own as part of a short lesson on the ADA.

3.   Interactive Exercises

Several interactive exercises are provided to engage the students in considering specific examples that relate to the material on the ADA. For example, while the presentation material explains that the ADA ensures equal access in the community, an interactive exercise leads the students to consider what would happen if they could not get on a bus. Therefore, the exercise provides a concrete lesson on accessible transportation and explains how the ADA is a law that requires that public transportation be accessible. These exercises and examples may reflect actual student experiences. The facilitators can ask students to share these experiences to provide variations on those provided in these materials.

The exercises can be used in different orders, and can be used before, during, or after the PowerPoint presentation. As reviewed below, it is suggested that the interactive exercise regarding consideration of “freedom” be engaged in first, prior to presenting the PowerPoint slides. Though it is presented as an art activity, it can be adapted to be a discussion exercise (“tell me examples of freedom”) or a pre- or post-presentation homework exercise that is essay based. Adapting it from an art exercise to an essay or term paper exercise is also a way of adapting it to students in different grades or of different developmental stages.

SECTION 3: Suggested Advance Preparation for Facilitators

Readings

Fact Sheet: Postsecondary Institutions and Students with Disabilities
Source: ADA National Network
Link: adata.org/sites/adata.org/files/files/ADANN_PostSecondary_2016.pdf

Auxiliary Aids and Services for Postsecondary Students with Disabilities
Source: U.S. Department of Education
Link: www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/auxaids.html

ADA Q & A: Section 504 & Postsecondary Education
Source: The Pacer Center
Link: www.pacer.org/publications/adaqa/504.asp

Resource Sheet: Higher Education and Students with Disabilities
Source: Southeast ADA Center
Link:  adalive.org/resources/episode-11-resources/

Fact Sheet: Job Applicants and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Source: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
Link: www.eeoc.gov/facts/jobapplicant.html

Youth, Disclosure, and the Workplace Why, When, What, and How
Source: U.S. Department of Labor Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP)
Link: www.dol.gov/odep/pubs/fact/ydw.htm

Advising Youth with Disabilities on Disclosure: Tips for Service Providers
Source: U.S. Department of Labor Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP)
Link: adaselfadvocacy.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/05/Advising_Youth_With_Disabilities_on_Disclosure_Tips_for_the_.pdf

Disability Disclosure and Employment – JAN Effective Accommodation Practices Series
Source:
The Job Accommodation Network (JAN)
Link: askjan.org/articles/EAPS/upload/employmentdisclosureEAP.doc

Disability Disclosure and Interviewing Techniques for Persons with Disabilities – JAN Consultants’ Corner
Source: The Job Accommodation Network (JAN)
Link: askjan.org/publications/consultants-corner/vol01iss13.cfm

Dos and Don’ts of Disclosure – JAN Effective Accommodation Practices Series
Source:
The Job Accommodation Network (JAN)
Link: askjan.org/articles/Job-Application-Interview-Stage-Dos-and-Donts.cfm

Workbooks

The 411 on Disability Disclosure: A Workbook for Youth with Disabilities
Source:
National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth
Link: www.ncwd-youth.info/publications/the-411-on-disability-disclosure-a-workbook-for-youth-with-disabilities/

The 411 on Disability Disclosure: A Workbook for Families, Educators, Youth Service Professionals, and Adult Allies Who Care About Youth with Disabilities
Source:
National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth
Link: www.heath.gwu.edu/sites/g/files/zaxdzs2346/f/downloads/the_411_on_disability_disclosure_for_adults.pdf

Cyber Disclosure for Youth with Disabilities
Source: National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth
Link: www.ncwd-youth.info/cyber-disclosure

Media

ADA Live! Episode 11: Higher Education and Students with Disabilities
Resources, audio and transcript available.
Source: Southeast ADA Center
Podcast Link: adalive.org/episodes/episode-11/

Web Course

Foundations of the Americans with Disabilities Act Web Course
Source: Southeast ADA Center
Link: bit.ly/foundations-ada-course
The ADA Foundations (bit.ly/foundations-ada-course) is a comprehensive web course designed to increase your knowledge and understanding of the core concepts about the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) and the ADA Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA). The web course has been developed to help you learn about the important concepts of the ADA and to think about inclusive solutions for people with disabilities in the workplace, state and local government programs, and private businesses.

Learning Objectives of ADA Foundations web course
Upon completion of this web course, you will be able to:

  • Discuss the purpose of the ADA using a civil rights framework.
  • Identify the five titles of the ADA.
  • Provide a basic overview of each title of the ADA.
  • Define the general nondiscrimination requirements of the ADA.
  • Explain each nondiscrimination requirement using 1-2 real-life examples.
  • Identify the defenses or limitations of each nondiscrimination requirement.
  • Identify the federal agencies responsible for enforcing each title of the ADA.
  • Locate and use resources for information on the ADA.

 

SECTION 4: Suggested Advance Preparation for Students

The following advanced reading assignments and video excerpts can be assigned to students to prepare them for learning about the ADA and the Workforce.

Readings

Fact Sheet: Job Applicants and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Source: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
Link: www.eeoc.gov/facts/jobapplicant.html

Facts About the Americans with Disabilities Act
Source: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
Link: www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/publications/fs-ada.cfm

Customized Employment Q&A
Source: U.S. Department of Labor Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP)
Link: www.dol.gov/agencies/odep/program-areas/customized-employment

Customized Employment: A New Competitive Edge
Source: U.S. Department of Labor Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP)
Link: www.dol.gov/agencies/odep/customized-employment

An Employee View of the Changes from the ADA Amendments Act
Source: ADA National Network
Link: adata.org/factsheet/employee-view-ada

Entering the World of Work: What Youth with Mental Health Needs Should Know About Accommodations
Source: U.S. Department of Labor Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP)

Information Briefs from the National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth
Source: National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth
Link: www.ncwd-youth.info/publication-category/briefs/

Bullying and Disability Harassment in the Workplace: What Youth Should Know
Source: National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth
Link: www.ncwd-youth.info/publications/bullying-and-disability-harassment-in-the-workplace-what-youth-should-know/

How Young People Can Benefit from One-Stop Centers
Source: National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth
Link: www.ncwd-youth.info/publications/how-young-people-can-benefit-from-one-stop-centers/

Taking Charge of Your Money: An Introduction to Financial Capability
Source: National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth
Link: www.ncwd-youth.info/publications/taking-charge-of-your-money-an-introduction-to-financial-capability/

Workbooks

The 411 on Disability Disclosure: A Workbook for Youth with Disabilities
Source:
National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth
Link: www.ncwd-youth.info/publications/the-411-on-disability-disclosure-a-workbook-for-youth-with-disabilities/

Websites

The Guideposts for Success: Key Areas for the Employment of Youth with Disabilities
Source: National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth
Link: www.ncwd-youth.info/publications/core-competencies-for-youth-service-professionals-guiding-youth-toward-employment/

Guideposts for Success
Source: U.S. Department of Labor Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP)
Link: www.dol.gov/odep/categories/youth/index-guide.htm

Center for Evidence-Based Practices – Supported Employment/Individual Placement & Support
Source: Case Western Reserve University
Link: www.centerforebp.case.edu/practices/se

APSE Employment First
Source: Association of People Supporting Employment First
Link: apse.org

Work Support
Source: Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU)
Link: vcurrtc.org/

Campaign for Disability Employment (CDE)
Source: U.S. Department of Labor Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP)
Link: www.whatcanyoudocampaign.org

Campaign for Disability Employment Outreach Toolkits
Source: U.S. Department of Labor Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP)
Link: www.whatcanyoudocampaign.org/blog/index.php/cde-toolkits/

Workforce Recruitment Program (WRP)
Source: U.S. Department of Labor Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP)
Link: wrp.gov

USBLN Rising Leaders Mentoring Program
Source: U.S. Business Leadership Network (USBLN)
Link: disabilityin.org/what-we-do/nextgen-leaders-initiatives/

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
Search for ADA information by topic or type of disability.
Link: www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/disability.cfm

Job Accommodation Network (JAN)
Search for information on job accommodations.
Link: askjan.org/media/index.htm

Media

Disability Inclusion Starts with You (Video; Captioned version available)
Source: Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP)
Link: www.dol.gov/ofccp/SelfIdVideo.html

 Supported Employment Webinar (Archived)
Source: Parent to Parent of Georgia
Link: www.p2pga.org/webinars/transition-to-adulthood-youth-presenters/supported-employment/

Reasonable Accommodations and Youth Transitions to Employment
Source: Parent to Parent of Georgia
Link: www.p2pga.org/webinars/ada/reasonable-accommodations-and-youth-transitions-to-employment/

Web Courses

Foundations of the Americans with Disabilities Act Web Course
Source: Southeast ADA Center
Link: bit.ly/foundations-ada-course
The ADA Foundations (bit.ly/foundations-ada-course) is a comprehensive web course designed to increase your knowledge and understanding of the core concepts about the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) and the ADA Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA). The web course has been developed to help you learn about the important concepts of the ADA and to think about inclusive solutions for people with disabilities in the workplace, state and local government programs, and private businesses.

Learning Objectives of ADA Foundations web course
Upon completion of this web course, you will be able to:

  • Discuss the purpose of the ADA using a civil rights framework.
  • Identify the five titles of the ADA.
  • Provide a basic overview of each title of the ADA.
  • Define the general nondiscrimination requirements of the ADA.
  • Explain each nondiscrimination requirement using 1-2 real-life examples.
  • Identify the defenses or limitations of each nondiscrimination requirement.
  • Identify the federal agencies responsible for enforcing each title of the ADA.
  • Locate and use resources for information on the ADA.

ADA Title I: Employment Requirements
Source: New England ADA Center
Link:
learn.newenglandada.org
Who has obligations under Title I of the ADA, who has rights, pre-employment do’s and don’ts, the process for identifying and providing reasonable accommodations, requirements concerning medical information and confidentiality, how to troubleshoot job performance and safety issues and the complaint process. Approximately 2.5 hours. Approved for 2.5 credits from the HR Certification Institute the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification.

 

 

SECTION 5: Presentation

Pre-Module for the Training Facilitator:

Facilitator Note: An accommodation is any change or modification to a job or to a workplace that makes it possible for people with disabilities to enjoy an equal job opportunity. Let’s think of ways that we might change a job or change a workplace to meet the needs of people with disabilities. In other words, let’s make a list of all the accommodations we can think of today. (Facilitator Note: Record this list of accommodations and keep it to be used at the end of this module.)

Facilitator Note: Use the Module 3 PowerPoint slides, Pathways to Careers… The ADA in the Workforce

 

Module 3 PowerPoint slides, Pathways to Careers… The ADA in the Workforce

Slide 1 – Pathways to Careers…. ADA in the Workforce

Slide 1 Notes – Pathways to Careers…. ADA in the Workforce

Objective: The student will be introduced to the topic of “The ADA in the Workforce” and ADA Title I Requirements.

Facilitator Talking Points:
Today, we are going to learn about the Americans with Disabilities Act and how it can help us in the workplace.

 

 

Slide 2 – How Can the ADA Help Me at Work?

Slide 2 Notes – How Can the ADA Help Me at Work?
Objective: The student will gain an understanding about the ADA Title I (employment) requirements.

Facilitator Talking Points:
We all have skills that make us good at something. For some of us, our skills are things we learn in school. Some people will go to a university or technical college to learn how to do a particular job. Other people will learn new skills on the job or in an apprenticeship. We all use our skills to do a job well.

The ADA protects the rights of people with disabilities who are “qualified workers.” A “qualified worker” is someone who:

has the skills or experience that the job requires, and

can do the job with or without help.

Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) can help you to become qualified for a job by providing job exploration and counseling, work-based learning experiences, post-secondary education counseling, and workplace readiness training. We will talk more about these later in the session.

Not every employer is covered by the ADA. Private businesses that have 15 or more employees and state and local governments must follow the ADA rules.

Discussion- What are some of your skills?

Slide 3 – How Does the ADA Help Me at Work?

Slide 3 Notes – How Does the ADA Help Me at Work?

Objective: The student will be able to explain reasonable accommodation.

Facilitator Talking Points:

The ADA says that you have the right to a “reasonable accommodation.” When an employer changes something about your job in order for you to do your job better, this is called an accommodation. Reasonable accommodation does not mean that you don’t have to do your work. What a reasonable accommodation does is give you the same chance as anyone else to be successful at your job.

Examples of reasonable accommodations are:

  1. Nina has lupus and gets tired easily. She is a cashier and has difficulty standing at her register for the 8-hour shift. She requests a stool at her register. Nina does not get as tired when she is sitting. This accommodation is reasonable because it is a common-sense solution to remove a workplace barrier being required to stand when the job can be effectively performed sitting down. This “reasonable” accommodation is effective because Nina does not get as tired and is still able to do her job.
  2. Jamaal is hard of hearing and uses a captioned telephone to communicate by phone. As an insurance agent, he must talk to customers by phone on a daily basis. Jamaal asks his employer to get him a captioned telephone for his workstation. This is “reasonable” because a captioned telephone is readily available, reasonably priced, and will allow Jamaal to communicate with his customers.
  3. Bright Spot Cleaning Company rotates its cleaning staff to different floors on a weekly basis. Bill has ADHD and an anxiety disorder. Bill can do all of his regular cleaning duties. However, changing floors on a weekly basis is hard for him and causes him to have panic attacks. Bill asks for reasonable accommodation of staying on one floor permanently. This accommodation is reasonable because it is a realistic solution that will allow Bill to deal with changes to his routine as well as to allow him to do his cleaning job.

 

 

Slide 4 – How Can the ADA Help Me at work?

Slide 4 Notes – How Can the ADA Help Me at Work?

Objective: The student will gain an understanding of ADA protections at different phases of the employment process.

Facilitator Talking Points:

Even before you meet a potential employer, you are protected by the ADA. For instance, let’s say you are Deaf and need a sign language interpreter for the job interview. If you disclose that you are Deaf and tell the employer you need an accommodation, in this case, a sign language interpreter, then he or she must provide one.

Maybe you have low vision and will have difficulty completing an online application. The employer might give you a paper and pencil application or have someone help you complete the online application.

Let’s say you have a new job and you need more time to complete your work because of your disability. You can disclose your disability and that you need an accommodation. Your employer is required to talk with you to see if there is an accommodation that can help you get your job done on time.

Here’s another example. Maybe you have never disclosed your disability. You have worked for a long time and never needed an accommodation. Then, your disability gets worse and you are having trouble doing your job. You can still disclose and get an accommodation, even if you’ve worked for your employer for many years.

Be sure you ask for help as soon as you notice that something isn’t going well or is hard for you because of your disability. If you aren’t sure if it is because of your disability, have a conversation with your boss. It is important to talk to your boss about your need for help as soon as possible. This will give you the opportunity to discuss ways to do your job with the help you need.

Slide 5 – How Can the ADA Help Me at Work?

Slide 5 Notes – How Can the ADA Help Me at Work?

Objective: The student will be able to identify strategies for disclosing a disability on the job.

Facilitator Talking Points:

There is no right or wrong time to disclose your disability but you should prepare for how you will do it. The ADA lets you decide how you will tell someone about your disability. You might not be confident in talking with someone about your disability. That’s ok! You could write a note or an email. The ADA even lets you give permission to someone else to disclose for you.

The ADA says you have the right to be treated respectfully by your employer. This means that an employer can’t get mad at you or punish you for disclosing your disability. Also, anything you tell an employer about your disability must be kept private.

 

 

Slide 6 – Does My Boss Have to Give Me Help?

Slide 6 Notes – Does My Boss Have to Give Me Help?

Objective: The student will understand employers also have rights under the ADA.

Facilitator Talking Points:

The ADA protects us when we are looking for a job or when we have a job. Employers have some protections as well. In most cases, an employer is required to give you a reasonable accommodation. The employer is supposed to talk with you about what type of help you need. But the employer gets to make the final decision about what that accommodation is, as long it is something that helps you work better.

An employer does not have to give you an accommodation if it is too expensive, is very complex, changes how things are done, or changes the reason why your job exists. However, your employer is required to talk with you “in good faith.” This means making an honest or real effort to find an accommodation that works for you.

Slide 7– How Vocational Rehabilitation Will Help You Find Your Future

Slide 7 Notes – How Vocational Rehabilitation Will Help You Find Your Future

Objective: The student will learn about Vocational Rehabilitation services.

Facilitator Talking Points:

There is a program called Vocational Rehabilitation (also known as VR). VR has counselors that can help you with job exploration and counseling, goal setting, and finding employment. As a student who may be working with a VR counselor, your counselor will provide Pre-Employment Transition Services (Pre-ETS) to help you find a job or go to college.

Pre-ETS includes five required steps that will support you and help you plan your future.

  1. Job Exploration and Counseling: Job exploration counseling encourages you to talk about jobs you have had or work you like to do, the types of activities, people and places you are interested in. It may also include taking a skills or career test to learn more about yourself, visiting local businesses or groups to find out more about the work they do, or talking to other people about their jobs. You will need to think more about what types of work you like or don’t like and find out what skills you need to be able to do the jobs you are interested in. You can learn about many types of jobs in person, by reading about them, and searching the Internet.
  2. Work-Based Learning Experiences: These are real work, in-school or after school jobs that give you practical work experience. You will learn how to do a job. Work-based learning experiences may include paid or non-paid work, internships, volunteering, job shadowing, mentorships, apprenticeships, field trips and informational interviews. There are lots of ways to learn about work and get real work experience. You will probably meet with local businesses or charities to find a job like this.
  3. Exploring Job Training Programs and College Opportunities: You can learn about job training programs or college opportunities. Your VR counselor will talk with you about what you want to do after high school ends – do you want to go to college or find a job? Do you want to join the military? Learn a trade? If you want to go to college, what do you need to do next? There are so many choices. Some community colleges and universities have courses and programs set up for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Your counselor will help you think about and plan what you want to do. Your parents or other family members may also help you decide what to do next.
  4. Workplace Readiness Training: Living and working independently as an adult is something we all should learn how to do. Whether you are at work or in college, you will need help with some tasks. You will be able to do other things on your own. Your boss will expect you to be at work on time and follow the rules. You may need to learn how to work within a group, how to finish a task on time, how to use a computer, or how to use a bank account. Your counselor will help you figure out what skills you still need to learn that will help you live and work as independently as possible.
  5. Be Your Own Advocate: You can learn how to plan your own life and ask for the things you need or want. Mentors can help you learn how to be a self-advocate or by your own advocate. You can learn how to ask for the things you need at school, at work, and in your community. This is called “self-advocating” and “self-determination.” Many people with disabilities have learned how to advocate for themselves. Your counselor may help you find a mentor. A mentor is an experienced guide or role model who teaches you how to speak for yourself and make your own decisions. A mentor should be someone who knows you well, understands what you want, already knows how to advocate and will teach you what to do. You may have different mentors at work or at school, or in the community. Your mentor may be another person with a disability, but they don’t have to have the same type of disability as you.

 

 

Post Module for the Training Facilitator:

Post-Module Facilitator Note: After you have completed the PowerPoint and learning activities, summarize the session(s) with the group.

From the Pre-Module activity, put the list back up and see what the group would like to add to the lists.

“Let’s go back to the list of accommodations we thought of at the beginning of this module and see how many more accommodations we can now add to the list. Since I wrote the first list in blue, I will use a red marker (or any two different colors) to add to the list.

 

 

SECTION 6: Learning Activities

For the Training Facilitator:

Learning activities have been designed to reinforce the content from the PowerPoint presentation and/or videos. A menu of activities has been provided. You may choose one or more activities based upon the time that you have to present the material and upon the needs of the students. For each interactive activity Suggested time frames are included with each activity. Please keep in mind the age of your students, their individual skill levels, and specific disabilities to allow time frames that are appropriate for your group.

Activity #1 Group Discussion

Facilitator Note: Please allow time frames for these discussions and activities that are appropriate for the size of the group and the nature of the makeup of the group. Please be flexible if the discussion or the sharing is productive, and the participants are actively engaged.

Activity 1A: Scenarios—”I Love My Job, But I Need an Accommodation”

Time: 10 minutes or more
Facilitator Note
: Six scenarios are listed below. Provide ample time for each scenario. You may choose to use as many scenarios as time allows. You may want to break these scenarios up over several sessions depending on the nature of your group.

Scenario 1:  Jill

Jill is having problems concentrating and staying focused on her work. We don’t know much about Jill’s disability. Based upon this information, what are some accommodations you think might help Jill with her job? Why do you think so?

Facilitator Note: List the accommodations suggested by the group. Discuss each accommodation suggestion as to why and how it might benefit Jill. Some examples of accommodations might include a flexible time schedule if the problem in concentrating happens during a certain part of the day, moving to part-time work, job sharing with another worker, time off for scheduled medical appointments, use of break time to meet Jill’s needs rather than a fixed break schedule, reducing noise or visual distractions, use of room dividers, partitions or private offices, or use of headphones on the job.

List responses on a whiteboard or flip chart after the group agrees that the accommodation might help Jill with her job. If you need to ask some probing questions, you might ask, “Is there anything you can think of that might help Jill if her problem with concentrating seems to happen mostly in the afternoons?” or “Can you think of anything that could take away some of the distractions that might be causing Jill to have problems focusing on her work?”

Scenario 2: Chris

Chris just can’t seem to get organized at work. We don’t know much about Chris’ disability. What are some accommodations you can think of that might help Chris with his job? Why do you think so?

Facilitator Note: List the accommodations suggested by the group. Discuss each accommodation suggestion as to why and how it might benefit Chris. Some examples of accommodations might include electronic organizing apps, calendars, day timers or day planners, alarms and timers on watches or phones, instructions in writing, instructions in diagrams or pictures, regularly scheduled meetings with a supervisor or mentor to review projects, checklists, minutes of meetings, posting written instructions next to equipment, recording of meetings, additional training time, organizational tools such as files, storage units, or desk organizers, or pictures or diagrams showing job duties.

List responses on a whiteboard or flip chart after the group agrees that the accommodation might help Chris with his job. If you need to ask some probing questions, you might ask, “Is there anything you can think of that has helped you to get organized?” or “What might help Chris if his problems with getting organized are because he has trouble remembering instructions or directions for doing his job duties?”

Scenario 3: Kira

Kira has problems reading and understanding written materials. We don’t know much about Kira’s disability. What are some accommodations you can think of that might help Kira with her job? Why do you think so?

Facilitator Note: List the accommodations suggested by the group. Discuss each accommodation suggestion as to why and how it might benefit Kira. Some examples of accommodations might include providing both written and verbal instructions, assistive technology such as text to speech, speech to text, and screen readers, magnifiers and magnification software, alternate formats such as large print or Braille, qualified readers, proof reading of written work, training provided verbally or by being active and doing the things that are parts of the job duties, labels in alternate formats in the workspace, or additional training time.

List responses on a whiteboard or flip chart after the group agrees that the accommodation might help Kira with her job. List responses on whiteboard or flip chart after the group agrees that the accommodation might help Kira with her job.  If you need to ask some probing questions, you might ask, “What might be causing Kira’s problems with reading and understanding written materials?” or “Can you think of any equipment or devices that might help Kira on her job?”

Scenario 4: Kelly

Kelly has difficulty learning new job tasks.  We don’t know much about Kelly’s disability. What are some accommodations you can think of that might help Kelly with her job? Why do you think so?

Facilitator Note: List the accommodations suggested by the group. Discuss each accommodation suggestion as to why and how it might benefit Kelly. Some examples of accommodations might include breaking job tasks down into smaller steps, a set job routine or a consistent work sequence, pictures or diagrams showing job duties, alarm watches or timers, assistive technology such as talking calculators, extended supervision while learning new tasks, additional training time, use of a job coach, or repeating instructions as needed.

List responses on a whiteboard or flip chart after the group agrees that the accommodation might help Kelly with her job. If you need to ask some probing questions, you might ask, “Is there anything you can think of that has helped you to learn a new task?” or “If something looks like a big job to you, what can you do to make it seem not quite so big and difficult?”

Scenario 5: Mark

Mark has problems trying to participate in meetings. We don’t know much about Mark’s disability. What are some accommodations you can think of that might help Kay with her job? Why do you think so?

Facilitator Note: List the accommodations suggested by the group. Discuss each accommodation suggestion as to why and how it might benefit Mark. Some examples of accommodations might include qualified interpreters, assistive listening devices, computer-assisted real-time captioning (CART), video phones, captioned telephones, telephone handset with amplifier, note takers, sharing written notes from meetings, providing workplace instructions and information in e-mails or other written forms, captioned videos, rearranging a workspace for good visual communication, or adequate lighting throughout the workplace.

List responses on a whiteboard or flip chart after the group agrees that the accommodation might help Mark with his job. If you need to ask some probing questions, you might ask, “What are some reasons that Mark might have problems trying to participate in meetings?” or “Do you ever have problems trying to listen in a meeting and take notes at the same time?”

Scenario 6: Kay

Kay has problems with limited mobility.  We don’t know much about Kay’s disability. What are some accommodations you can think of that might help Kay with her job? Why do you think so?

Facilitator Note: List the accommodations suggested by the group. Discuss each accommodation suggestion as to why and how it might benefit Kay. Some examples of accommodations might include removing physical barriers, moving furniture and objects to create a good path of travel, rearrange the work space for easy reach ranges, emphasize consistent placement within the work space, monitoring the accessible path of travel to make sure no obstacles have been placed there, modified standard work desk, use of trackball instead of standard mouse, modified keyboard such as a one-handed keyboard, speech to text software, a flexible schedule, telecommuting as needed, or working from home at times.

List the accommodations suggested by the group. Discuss each accommodation suggestion as to why and how it might benefit Kay. If you need to ask some probing questions, you might ask, “In what way might Kay’s mobility be limited?” or “Are there any devices or equipment you can think of that might help Kay at her job?”

Activity #2 Art Projects & Musical Expression

Art Project

Facilitator Note: If your group is engaged by art activities, such as drawing, painting, collages, murals, etc., you might use art materials to do the following. Please keep in mind the age of your students as well as the individual skill levels and specific disabilities to allow time frames that are appropriate for your group. If members of your group have difficulty manipulating art materials, such as students who have difficulty using scissors due to limited hand dexterity, consider working in partners or small groups.

If your group is made up of students with varying levels of vision loss, consider having students with low vision work as partners or in small groups with students with total vision loss. Using materials such as magazines, advertising flyers, brochures, pamphlets, etc., have the students with low vision audio describe the pictures and words that the partners or small groups might decide to use in a collage or mural.

If your group is made up of students with total vision loss, consider using the Musical Expression activity with your group.

Activity 2A: “My Dream Job”

Time: 10 minutes or more
Facilitator Note (Materials): Use large pieces of drawing paper and any art materials you like. Have the youth work in pairs or small groups so that they can brainstorm about their dream jobs, if needed.

Facilitator Script: “With your large piece of drawing paper, fold it in half from left to right so that you now have a part on the left side and another part on the right side of your paper. On the left half, write your dream job at the top, and draw a picture on the left half of someone doing that job. On the right half of your paper, make a list of the parts of your dream job. What are the different tasks you would be doing in that job? If you need help thinking of the parts of the job you have chosen, ask your partner) or other members in your group) to help you think about the job tasks. Finally, look over your list of things that you would do in your dream job. Decide if you would need an accommodation to do one or more of these parts of the job. Then, turn your paper over, and on the whole back side of your paper, draw a picture of yourself doing your dream job, and include any accommodation that would help you in your picture. If you have an accommodation in mind that can’t be seen in your picture, make a note of what it is at the bottom of your page.”

Facilitator Note: Following the work time, state, “Now let’s share with the group what you chose as your dream job, and what accommodations you thought of to help you to do that dream job.”

Musical Expression

Facilitator Note: If your group is engaged by musical expression, you might want to use activities such as singing, simple musical instruments, percussion instruments, drumming, etc. The activity of drumming can be done using plastic buckets or containers or using hands on tabletops. Please keep in mind the age of your students as well as the individual skill levels and specific disabilities to allow time frames that are appropriate for your group.

Activity 2B: “Call for An Accommodation”

Time: 10 minutes or more
Facilitator Note: This musical expression activity follows a “Call and Response” format. Using any object as the “Musical Wand,” each person in the circle or group can only “perform” when that person has possession of the Musical Wand. The first person who has the Musical Wand calls out to the group in any musical way they choose about a difficulty experienced on the job and asks for help.

The members of the group can volunteer to perform a response that tells about an accommodation that would help and how it would help. Or the first person who performed about the difficulty on the job might choose someone by handing off the Musical Wand to the next person. If the person with the Musical Wand who is responsible for suggesting an accommodation needs help from the group, a request for help can be made at any time, but it must be performed musically. An example of the “Call and Response” activity using Call for An Accommodation is provided below.

Example: The first person with the Musical Wand calls out for help with a difficulty at work (set to any tune):

“My name is Jill.

I love my job.

But sometimes I have to say—

I wish the distraction would just go away!

I can’t concentrate!

Just can’t concentrate!

Can you help me?

Please tell me something that can help me!”

Example: The second person who has volunteered or was given the Musical Wand performs a response that suggests an accommodation that might help Jill, and explains how it might help (set to any tune):

“I need some headphones,
To create a dead zone.
Get rid of the distractions,
To focus on my actions,
And get my work done,
So I can go have fun!”

Facilitator Note: If you want other members of the group to perform another accommodation suggestion before you go on to a new Call about another difficulty at work, continue to let the other group members perform their responses. Let the group discuss what they think of that suggestion and how it would help Jill with her difficulty at work. When all group members who want to share have had an opportunity, give the Musical Wand to a group member who wants to perform a new Call for an Accommodation.

Activity #3 Dramatic Arts

Facilitator Note: If your group is especially engaged by dramatic arts, such as role plays, skits, improvisation, etc., you might use dramatic arts activities.

Activity 3A: “Go Talk to the Boss

Time: 10—15 minutes
Facilitator Note: Have the group divide into pairs or partners. Give the following directions: “Think of an accommodation you might need in the workplace. When I say ‘Ready—go talk to your boss.’ One of you will go first and ask your boss about getting that accommodation. Remember to explain what difficulties you are having and why you think the accommodation will help you to do your job. If you are the boss, consider whether you think the accommodation requested will be too costly or be too difficult to make it happen. Make sure this is a discussion between the two of you so you can make a good decision for both of you. When I call “Switch roles.” That means that you trade places. Your partner now gest to come to you as the boss and ask for an accommodation that your partner might need in the workplace. We will have a short time at the end for sharing how you felt about being in each role.”

Activity 3B: “I Love My Job, But I Need an Accommodation”

Time: 10—15 minutes
Facilitator Note: After the scenarios in the Group Discussion activity have been examined by your group, use the scenarios as role plays for two people to decide who will be Jill, Chris, Kira, Kelly, Mark or Kay, and who will be the boss. Remind the partners, “if you are playing Jill (or Chris or Kira or Kelly or Mark or Kay), you need to disclose to your boss that you are a person with a disability, if this is not obvious, and tell your boss what difficulty you are having with your job. Tell your boss what accommodation you think will help you and why. If you are playing the boss, ask questions about anything you do not understand, and ask about any other accommodations that might work if you think of some.”

Activity#4 Role Models

Facilitator Note: For young people with disabilities, it is very important to identify with role models who are people with disabilities living independently in the community. Sources for finding role models that may serve as guest speakers in class include:

Activity 4A: Virtual Reality—”And Now, A Word from the Real World”

Time: 5–15 minutes
Facilitator Note:
Invite a speaker or a small panel of 2 to 4 people with disabilities to briefly share about a job they now have, or have had previously, and about the accommodations they needed to do that job. Allow time for the group to ask questions and dialogue with the role model(s).

Activity 4B: Virtual Reality—”A Word from the Real World”

Time: 5–15 minutes
Facilitator Note
: Using Zoom or a similar platform, invite a speaker or a small panel of 2 to 4 people with disabilities to briefly share about a job they now have, or have had previously, and about the accommodations they needed to do that job. Allow time for the group to ask questions and dialogue with the role model(s).

 

SECTION 7: Handouts or Materials Needed

  • Audiovisual equipment for PowerPoint presentation and/or videos.
  • Art materials, blank paper, colored pencils or markers.
  • Photocopies of PowerPoint slides, including alternate formats such as large print, Braille, and electronic formats such as a USB drive for students with visual or print disabilities.

SECTION 8: After Class

Homework Possibilities

Conduct an interview with a person with a disability who is working in the community. Ask him/her to share about accommodations that he/she may use at the work site. During the next class session, discuss the interviews and various types of accommodations in the workplace.

Quiz Questions

Use these quiz questions to reinforce learning by giving this pop quiz at the end of class, as a homework assignment, or at the beginning of the next class session. Correct answers are noted with an asterisk (*).

  1. In order to get accommodation under the ADA, I must have the skills or experience that the job requires and be able to do the job with or without help.
  • Yes*
  • No
  1. Reasonable accommodation means changing something about my job so I can do it better.
  • Yes*
  • No
  1. Getting an accommodation means I don’t have to do the work I’ve been hired to do.
  • Yes
  • No*
  1. I can ask for an accommodation at any time, even before I am hired.
  • Yes*
  • No
  1. I am required by law to tell my employer that I have a disability.
  • Yes
  • No*
  1. The ADA has clear instructions for how you can ask for an accommodation.
  • Yes
  • No*
  1. My employer can fire me if I tell him I have a disability?
  • Yes
  • No*
  1. My employer must give me an accommodation.
  • Yes
  • No*
  1. Vocation Rehabilitation provides services such as job exploration and work-based learning experiences to help me learn about jobs that I might like to do.
  • Yes*
  • No
  1. Learning how to ask for the things I need at school, at work, and in my community is called self-advocacy.
  • Yes*
  • No

SECTION 9: Resources for Students

Additional Reading and Videos

Fact Sheet: An Overview of the Americans with Disabilities Act
Source: ADA National Network
Link: adata.org/factsheet/ADA-overview

Video – Overview of the ADA
Source: ADA National Network and New England ADA Center

Link: www.youtube.com/watch?v=ns7UY8HdPr8 (6:41 minutes)

Video: ADA Signing Ceremony (22 minutes)
Source:
U.S. Department of Justice
Link:
www.youtube.com/watch?v=9gsGiszvyjQ

The ADA National Network Disability Law Handbook
Source: ADA National Network
Link: adata.org/guide/ada-national-network-disability-law-handbook

Americans with Disabilities Act Information Center

ADA National Network

Phone: 1-800-949-4232 (toll free)

Website: adata.org

Facebook: facebook.com/adanetwork

Twitter: twitter.com/ADANational

National Resources

Community Organizations

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